All follow-up responses should require 250-300 words.#1For this weeks forum posting, we are to discuss the differences between a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis. In addition, I will explain why the qualitative methods studies seldom hold a hypothesis.According to Ellis, Hartley, and Walsh, (2009), a hypothesis is a tentative statement about empirical reality, that may or may not be true. A Null Hypothesis simply posits that no relationship or difference exists in whatever is being studied. In other words, a null hypothesis, with two or more variables, the scientists are hypothesizing that the variables are not related, and/or, there are no differences between the two or more groups with reference to the variables under scrutiny (p. 63,64).The main difference between a null hypothesis and an alternative or research hypothesis is that the null hypothesis is usually implied, rather than stated. Scientists typically state and test the alternative or research hypothesis. The research hypothesis states the differences or relationships among whatever variables are being studied. If the null hypothesis is accepted, then the alternative hypothesis is rejected. If the alternative hypothesis is accepted, then the null hypothesis is rejected (Ellis, Walsh, Hartley, p. 64). According to Ratnesar and Mackenzie, a null hypothesis is not used in the qualitative research method, because qualitative research is not designed for hypothesis testing. Rather, it is used to explore an area which can later be hypothesized with a quantitative approach. (p. 505)Research Proposal Hypothesis:For my research proposal, I am in the process of editing and determining the content. One of the first methods I plan on using is a hypothesis. For my research proposal, I choose “Extraterrestrial Intelligence: Ancient Civilizations and Modern Scientific Discoveries”. The hypothesis, for this proposal, will include many aspects of what technology and biology have been discovered, that may contain extraterrestrial life/intelligence. My hypothesis, is that Extraterrestrial life has had a hand in shaping the evolution of man from the very beginning. With the discovery of possible alien remains in Peru, multiple human skeletons over 12ft in height all over the world, non-cranial deformation with skulls containing 30% more mass without a sagittal suture, as well as the universal donor O- blood type. These four reasons listed above, I believe, are ample reasons that a hypothesis is in good working order of this research proposal. There are hundreds, if not thousands of religions around the world. It is predicted and prophesized that there will be a one world religion in the future. I can see and understand how this can come to fruition. Every religion, weather Abrahamic, Hindu, Norse, Egyptian, or Greek, have some basis of mythology in reality. Each religions mythology tells of a remarkably similar story, just with different names.Lee Ellis, Richard Hartley, Anthony Walsh. “Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology: An Interdisciplinary Approach”. Rowman & Littlefield. 15 December, 2009. [Date Accessed] 31 December, 2018. https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/lib/apus/reader.action?docID=500811Nimal Ratnesar, Jim Mackenzie. “The Quantitative-Qualitative Distinction and the Null Hypothesis Significance Testing Procedure”. Journal of Psychology of Education, Vol. 40, No, 4, 2006. [Date Accessed] 31 December, 2018. https://www.academia.edu/1429308/The_Quantitative_Qualitative_Distinction_and_the_Null_Hypothesis_Significance_Testing_Procedure#2This week we looked at the hypothesis.  The hypothesis is one of the most important parts of certain research studies as it initially describes the guestimate, thought, or idea that is being studied.  As an initial concept, the hypothesis is a belief that is not always true.  Within many styles of research, you will find a null hypothesis and an alternate hypothesis.  This part of the research is important as the researcher because it helps to push past initial beliefs to find the truth while still giving value to the initial belief.A hypothesis “enables the researcher to select facts that are relevant and pertinent to their research, making his or her task much easier, simpler, and less frustrating. Once the direction and points are identified, the researcher can eliminate irrelevant facts and concentrate only on those that will be the most helpful in solving the research problem.” (Lesson Five, 2019).  Researchers need to be careful when they are conducting their study as to not only choose information that is biased to their hypothesis.  When identifying information, the researcher will either come upon a null hypothesis or an alternate hypothesis.  The difference between the two is that in a null hypothesis the relationship between the variables is just a coincidence.  For example, a person could believe that that there is a relationship between income and crime.  Someone could believe that in low-income societies more crime occurs, they would propose that there is absolutely no relationship between the two and that the crime occurs more in low-income societies is a coincidence.  In the hypothesis, the variables are tested to identify if the correlation is true or untrue.  The research is designed to provide examples or evidence to reject a null hypothesis.On the other hand, the alternate Hypothesis absolutely suggests that there is a direct relationship between the variables being tested.  The relationship is proven to be a common occurrence and not by chance.  In this study, there would be absolute proof that there is a relationship between crime and low-income societies.  In this hypothesis it would be proposed that in higher income communities are more content with their lives, thus having no reason to commit crimes.  Here it would be no coincidence that less crime occurs within communities of higher income.  We find that if the null hypothesis is rejected or proven wrong, the alternate hypothesis is accepted.  During the research, the null hypothesis is what it is tested.In the research proposal that I am conducting, I believe that there is there is no correlation between restricting the sales of “assault rifles” and gun violence decreasing.  Violence has occurred long before the invention of the semi-automatic rifle.  Throughout history, since the creation of the gun, gun violence has been conducted.  My belief is that the only way gun violence will be mitigated is by stricter penalties for gun crimes and stopping the trafficking of guns through our borders.  Until we can fully control all avenues that a person has to access the purchase and use of guns, we will continue to have a problem with crimes involving guns.                References:https://edge.apus.edu/access/content/group/security-and-global-studies-common/Universal/SSGS/300/elf/lesson-5/elf_index.html

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